Review: A Vicious Cycle: Using Nutrition to Combat the Behavioral Impact of Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) are mood disorders experienced by women of child-bearing age who are regularly experiencing their menstrual cycles. Symptoms experienced negatively impact women cognitively, socially, emotionally, and physically. A literature review was performed relevant to the behavioral effects of PMS and PMDD and symptomology. Nutritional and lifestyle interventions with evidence were analyzed and reviewed. Studies indicated that intestinal dysbiosis, the Western diet, inadequacies in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin B6, iron, sun exposure, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity are linked to symptomology associated with PMS and PMDD. Addressing micronutrient and essential fatty acid deficiencies, intestinal dysbiosis, smoking avoidance, limiting alcohol consumption, promoting physical activity and sunlight exposure, and providing education on PMS and PMDD may improve symptoms associated with these conditions.