Nutritional Foundations

Nutritional Foundations is the peer-reviewed student journal of the American Chiropractic Association’s Council on Nutrition. It is indexed through EBSCO including CINAHL complete, CINHAL ultimate, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and Food Science Source. The journal will focus entirely on research produced by students on nutrition related topics. There are no article processing fees and no costs for students to publish in the journal. One of the largest obstacles to participating in research is a lack of experience. Where do I start? Who can help?

The evolution of healthcare rests upon the evidence provided by research which leads to better understanding of disease. This is the primary reason why all providers should have a natural interest in healthcare research. In appreciating the importance of research in understanding all aspects of disease, clinical research at the student level has never been more valuable and more necessary than before. Students who engage in these activities accelerate their interest in the clinical sciences and receive a more enriching education than those who do not. In addition, faculty report a boost in morale from engaging in research with students.

One of the long-term objectives for the journal is to establish a presence in multiple colleges to provide mentorship at the local level. Faculty, we need your help. If you have an interest in providing support to your students for a future article submission or joining our editorial review board, please contact the journal.


Review: Efficacy of Natural Supplements and Foods in Decreasing Inflammation and Increasing Recovery of Damaged Muscles

Background: There is available literature examining the anti-inflammatory properties of foods and the utilization of these foods to reduce muscle damage through diet. However, the available research does not compare the outcomes of many different types of foods and their effects. This review examines various foods and their efficacy regarding anti-inflammatory properties and pain reduction, following exercise-induced muscle damage. These foods all show promising evidence in the reduction of muscle soreness and inflammation following exercise-induced muscle damage, suggesting their ability to act as a clinical modality. Methods: Literature was gathered using various key searches like “exercise induced muscle damage and anti-inflammatory foods”. Databases searched included EBSCO host, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Randomized controlled trials, double-blind studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews with full texts published between 2012 and 2022, were included. Results: Four tart cherry articles found decreased scores in delayed onset muscle soreness or VAS scores, which was assessing pain following exercise. They also saw decreased scores in cherry groups compared to placebos. Four tart cherries studies all saw significantly increased scores in muscular voluntary isometric contractions with cherry use compared to the placebos. Tart cherries also saw improved levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in the intervention group. Another cherry study saw improvements in creatine kinase following exercise that induced muscle damage. Blueberry supplementation saw decreased pain level scores, increased maximal torque, and maximal torque average post-exercise-induced muscle damage. Creatine kinase levels were lower in blueberry groups while interleukin-6 showed increased levels in the blueberry groups. Pomegranate juice saw higher maximal weight scores and total weight lifted. Pomegranate groups also saw decreased delayed onset muscle soreness scores with blood biomarkers showing no significant change. Omega-3 studies saw improvements in at least one inflammation biomarker compared to placebo groups. One omega-3 study did not see improvements in physical markers but improved perceived muscle soreness while another omega-3 study saw decreased delayed onset muscle soreness scores. Conclusion: Tart cherries, pomegranate, blueberries, and omega-3 supplements all appear to be effective anti-inflammatory treatment options.

Ethan Balogh, James Geiselman DC, MS, DACBN, CCSP, ICSC, CES, CNC, NREMT, EMT-P

Review: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications for PCOS

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome affects millions of women across the world yet limited research on the topic of treatment options remains. In many cases, lifestyle modifications and complementary and alternative medicines are preferred first-line therapy. There are numerous signs and symptoms evident, however the most significant and common include insulin resistance, infertility, menstrual disturbances, inability to lose weight, and obesity. The current most researched dietary recommendations are the Mediterranean diet and low carb diets, such as the Ketogenic diet. There are a few researched supplements which may show a benefit to PCOS symptoms including, but limited to, inositol, vitamin D, magnesium, probiotics, and zinc. Even with these recommendations and the current literature, there is much more to learn and discover on this topic. It is the general consensus that more research is warranted to determine the best course of dietary and supplemental recommendations that support efficacy, safety, and sustainability for the patient as a univocal therapy for PCOS does not currently exist.

Katherine Giacobbe, Bethany A. Aponte, DC, DACBN, CFMP

Review: Weight Loss Using a Ketogenic Diet for Adults with Type II Diabetes

The ketogenic diet was introduced over a hundred years ago as a potential treatment for epilepsy. It was used as an alternative to fasting and is more effective due to the levels of ketonemia produced and the ability to be sustained for longer periods of time. As of late researchers have been focusing on the diet for Type II diabetes and weight loss. Using the Graceland Libraries and PubMed databases studies a literature review was performed using specific search terms with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Randomized controlled trials taking very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets and comparing them to diets using normal, smaller reductions in fat intake (less than 30 percent kcal from fat) for at least a year, found that ketogenic diets provided more weight loss for patients than the other reduced-fat diets. A ketogenic diet for adults with Type II diabetes when compared to typical dieting was shown to be effective. Factors that can improve the effectiveness of this include daily exercise and sufficient rest and practicing behavioral adherence strategies. This may be a substantial approach to treating obesity in adults with Type II diabetes.

Talia Martinez, Melanie Mason, DAT, LAT, ATC, CES, PES, James Geiselman, DC, MS, DACBN, CCSP, ICSC, CES, CNC, NREMT, EMT-P


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July 18, 2022